Friday, April 20, 2007

The emigration of Lebanese youth

National hemorrhage or national treasure?

Pamela and Michele Chrabieh, Electronic Lebanon, 17 April 2007

Lebanon: a nice place to visit but not to live?
Youth enjoy Al-Rawshe Mediterranean beach in Beirut, August 2006.
(Payam Borazjani/MaanImages)
L’icône et l’islam : Pamela Chrabieh
Émission Second Regard,
3 décembre 2006, Radio Canada
Un reportage de Jean-Robert Faucher
Merci Robert et à toute l'équipe de Second Regard!
De Philippe Martin:
'Voici la onzième édition des portraits de blogueurs, avec Pamela Chrabieh Badine'.
On peut trouver l'entrevue sur Dailymotion, Cent Papiers et YULBUZZ.
Merci à Philippe et Christian Aubry!

In a time of political upheaval and economic crisis following the July-August 2006 Israeli war on Lebanon, we constantly think of the young Lebanese who have lost hope in their mother country, resorting to what they believe is their only solution: deserting Lebanon. It would be foolish to pretend we cannot understand, as we also feel disheartened and find ourselves temporarily drawn to the thesis of a chaotic Lebanon struck by brain drain. A thesis promoted by analysts who consider emigration to be a handicap, a vicious cycle which undermines the fragile social and demographic equilibriums of Lebanon. This exact thesis is also articulated by Lebanese religious authorities (mainly Christian ones) who have been trying for years to hinder new waves of emigration.

A vision of emigration as a national hemorrhage and a menace to the country is reinforced by multiple studies and surveys carried out during the past couple of years in Lebanon. One survey conducted by Ipsos, a Middle East research institute, revealed that 50 percent of those questioned do not foresee a professional future in Lebanon. Subjects of this particular study were Lebanese between 20 and 40 affected by a trend of "collective despair".

Another survey conducted by l'Observatoire universitaire de la realite socio-economique (OURSE), at Saint-Joseph University in Beirut revealed that one graduate out of five (between 2002 and 2004) resides overseas, i.e. 21.5 percent of the graduates from the university. A January 2007 edition of the Lebanese weekly publication Magazine considers this statistic to be "alarming", entailing disastrous and dangerous consequences for the future of the nation.
An article by writer Rania Massoud, published prior to the July-August 2006 war in the newspaper L'Orient-le-Jour, suggests that Lebanon has been, in recent years, a "theater" of emigration, mainly towards Canada and the United States.

Massoud's article outlines that the current economic crisis drives youth to leave the country in search of a stable life; most migrants deciding to remain in the country of immigration, visiting Lebanon from time to time to spend vacations.

In another article by Alistair Lyon published by Reuters in January 2007, "Losing hope, Lebanese seek future abroad", highlights the despair of Lebanese youth: "the scale of the hemorrhage is hard to pin down". Lyon's statement is based on a survey conducted by the Lebanese Emigration Research Center. According to the Center, 60 percent of those surveyed (600 residents from two different groups -- students or recent graduates and middle-aged people) want to leave, mostly due to a crisis of employment, or because they do not envision their future -- or their children's -- in Lebanon.

In the weekly Lebanese Magazine (5 January 2007), it is stated that the figures "speak" on their own (i.e. no interpretation is necessary). Well, permit us to declare that these figures do "speak", yet according to certain interests and particular beliefs.

Statistics are never 100 percent reliable. They are partial and their interpretation remains biased to a certain degree. For instance, the statistics conducted by OURSE at Saint-Joseph University do not include data from other Lebanese universities; they are only based on one. Furthermore, according to OURSE, the main reasons for emigration are "education" at 59.3 percent and "employment" at 34 percent. The results of the survey were interpreted in such a way to reveal an economic and political crisis. If we look even further into the issue, we would be more inclined to address factors related to the movement of human resources and to the globalization of knowledge, its transmission and exchange. Despite the facts presented, the causes of emigration are numerous. Even if we believe emigration is a constant in the history of Lebanon and the Lebanese, as if it belongs to a national nature and genetic code, it is both a positive and a negative constant cause of suffering and joy. Consequently, it should not be considered a menace or a curse: why forget about the wealth emanating from the diverse contributions (financial, cultural, socio-political, etc.) of the Lebanese emigrants to the development of their country of origin? According to the World Bank, the monetary transfers of the emigrants to Lebanon amounted to $5.6 billion in 2006, while the total exports from Lebanon amounted to $4.2 billion.

It is certain that a form of despair inhabits new generations of Lebanese, but this is far from being generalized to all youth and from now on, we shouldn't only specify the negative aspects of emigration (for example: the fact that a few thousand Lebanese have dual nationality is considered "frightening" according to certain analysts in Magazine, 5 January 2007). In addition, we shouldn't only speak of an "inner fear" ("la peur viscerale"), a "deaf anger" ("la colere sourde") and "the uncertainty" ("l'incertitude") that push the Lebanese "to leave their homeland behind".

What about the numerous initiatives from members of Lebanese civil society and the Diaspora through which Lebanese youth play a significant role? Having mentioned this point, we also want to highlight the contributions of freelance journalists, artists, film makers, directors, bloggers as well as groups and associations such as Nahwa al-Muwatiniya, Samidoun, Amam 05, Nahnou, Youth in Action, Resolve it Solve it, Solida, Tadamon! Montreal, Helem, Libanus, etc.
Even if such contributions still lack exposure, financial means and support from a large number of individuals, they constitute a significant form of resistance from a youth that is not entirely driven by traditional political parties or drowned in despair.

Moreover, we rarely speak of the young Lebanese who actually returned to Lebanon during the past couple of years or of those who consider heading back home. In a meeting-debate between a group of 20 to 40-year-old individuals at the University of Montreal (Chaire de recherche du Canada en Islam, Pluralisme et Globalisation) in October 2006 -- which revolved around war and its impacts at the individual and collective level -- four out of ten participants were calmly optimistic, yet realistic. One was willing to immediately go back to Lebanon, ready to face the diverse obstacles she might have to face. The remaining six were pessimistic -- convinced they will never return to the fold, at least in the short run. If the number of emigrants returning to Lebanon appears to be minor, it constitutes, without doubt, a reality that we shouldn't disregard in our analysis of migratory phenomena. Having stated this it should be clear that, Lebanese youth are not uniform or monolithic. Diverse and dynamic in time and space, the migratory movements of Lebanese youth are plural (mandatory, personal choice, temporary, permanent, etc.), and the accompanying identities and memories are even more diverse. We have repeated the latter on several occasions to journalists who interviewed us after the July-August 2006 war (Reuters, Radio Publique Allemande, Radio Canada, etc.).

Unfortunately, the "sensational aspect" of the drama and the suffering is often given much more media coverage than the initiatives of peace and social justice. The misinformation and propaganda of most of the traditional local and international media constitutes an obstacle to be urgently overcome. Not to mention other obvious obstacles such as the incompetence and deficiency of the current Lebanese government and those which preceded it, mainly in matters concerning the integration of young graduates into the labor market and the development of a global plan to encourage emigrants to return home or at least to invest in Lebanon.

Instead of concentrating on and complaining about the despair of the Lebanese youth and the curse of emigration, one should support the organizing efforts which are ongoing focusing on addressing the socio-political and economic crisis in Lebanon, and encourage more the initiatives within the Lebanese Diaspora. After all, the emigrants constitute, indisputably, a main pillar in the reconstruction of Lebanon.

Pamela Chrabieh, PhD., is a researcher at the University of Montreal and the St-Joseph University of Beirut, blogger (, author, iconographer and activist in several organizations in Beirut and Montreal.

Michele Chrabieh works in the Human Resources field in Beirut, and is a creative writer. She was deeply engaged in humanitarian campaigns and anti-war events throughout the July-August 2006 war on Lebanon.

Nahwa al-Muwatiniya is pleased to invite you to join its Hiwar session with Mr. Talal El Husseini on his project to:

“Remove confessional specification from personal record registrations”

Mr. Talal El Husseini, as the former advisor to the Speaker of the House; he was one of the participants in formulating the Taif Accords. Today he is one of the founders of a group Muwatinun, and is working on a project to remove the confessional specification from the personal record registrations. This in his view will be the 1st action towards achieving a true citizenship. In the session he will discuss the project, how it began, and what it aims for.

Date: Monday, 22 April 2007
Time: 8:00pm
Place: Club 43 –Gemayzé- facing Doculand (Lebanon)


Fouad said...

Great article! It's important to show that Emigration is not a calamity.

Anonymous said...

Je seconde Fouad, car ça fait un bon bout de temps que les médias locaux et des médias internationaux et une panoplie d'experts qualifient l'émigration Libanaise de fléau, sans aucune nuance ni analyse profonde des mouvements migratoires et des apports si importants de la diaspora.


Anonymous said...

Robert Fisk était interviewé hier soir à la télé (NewTV). Il a mentionné le fait que l'émigration de Libanais durant la guerre 'civile' fut une richesse pour le pays puisque ce fut une élite qui s'est formée à l'étranger et qui a appris les leçons de la guerre. J'ajoute personnellement que des jeunes qui sont restés aussi au Liban ont fait un travail sur eux-mêmes sans quitter le pays. Bien que le point que Robert Fisk ait relevé soit important, reste que son ton lors de son entrevue était condescendant, simplificateur et moralisateur: "les libanais doivent faire ceci... cela...", "c'est la faute aux libanais principalement...". Pourtant, j'apprécie bien la plupart de ses écrits.


Rita V. said...

Salut Pamela, j'ai beaucoup apprécié l'article. J'ai moi-même émigré il y a quelques années mais je voudrais rentrer au bercail. J'attends un peu pour voir ce qui va se passer dans les prochains mois. A entendre les nouvelles, elles ne présagent rien de bon, mais enfin... Tant que je me trouve ailleurs, je peux quand même contribuer autant que possible au développement du Liban. Il suffit d'un peu de volonté, de courage et de détermination.

Anonymous said...

Le LIBAN est en quelque sorte un mini empire qui doit se désagreger, les communautés n'ayant pas les mêmes valeurs n'auront pas la même destinée.
Une petite guerre est necessaire pour quelques metres gagnés ou perdus par ci et par là. Et surtout pour homogeiniser la population.
de ce fait on aura plusieurs principauté qui chacune pour survivre aura son propre tuteur ou protecteur.
Et personnelement je suis pour.

Walid said...

Un petit mot en réponse du dernier commentaire anonyme: vous avez le droit bien sûr d'avoir la vision que vous voulez du Liban, mais personnellement, je ne vois pas du tout la solution à nos problèmes en désagrégeant le pays - ou tout pays! D'ailleurs, les Libanais ne sont pas divisés tant que vous le dépeignez en communautés imperméables. Il y a beaucoup d'échanges, de mariages mixtes, d'amitiés, de sang et de culture en commun. C'est dommage qu'il y ait encore une vision si simpliste et tronquée de la réalité Libanaise, mais quoi... faut s'y faire et critiquer. Démocratie oblige!

Anonymous said...

En tous cas, elle se fait attendre cette solution. Je crains qu'elle ne verra pas le jour de notre vivant.
Patience et persévérance


Pamela Chrabieh Badine said...

Une affreuse nouvelle hier jeudi soir: les corps de Ziad Ghandour (12 ans) et Ziad Kabalan (24 ans) furent retrouvés inertes, criblés de balles et mutilés à Jadra dans le Chouf (Liban) après avoir été kidnappés pendant deux jours. L'état d'urgence a été décrété dans le pays et l'armée (60 000 soldats)et les forces intérieures se sont déployées dans toutes les régions. Les écoles et les universités sont fermées aujourd'hui. Face à cette horreur, le gouvernement et l'opposition ont appelé au calme, à la raison... Tout pour ne pas enflammer la discorde et pour dépolitiser cet horrifique crime.

Il convient de noter que plusieurs personnes ont été arrêtées hier dans le cadre de l’enquête, dont un suspect, interpellé à Baalbeck et transféré hier à Beyrouth.

Nos condoléances aux familles des victimes et à tous les Libanais en ce jour de deuil.

D. said...

La Finul est intervenue pour prévenir une escalade
Incursion israélienne dans le secteur de Chebaa (au Sud du Liban)

Une patrouille israélienne composée de dix soldats a effectué hier une incursion entre 50 et 100 mètres de profondeur à Chebaa, mais les Casques bleus l’ont contrainte à rebrousser chemin.
« La Finul a envoyé des renforts dans la zone afin d’y prévenir toute escalade », a expliqué à l’AFP un officier de la force internationale qui a également dépêché sur les lieux une commission pour établir les faits.

(cf. L'Orient-le-Jour, 27 avril 2007)

Walid said...

It is indeed an horrific event!


Police find bodies of missing youths, step up security measures in Beirut

By Rym Ghazal
Daily Star staff
Friday, April 27, 2007

Beirut: The bodies of two Lebanese youths who went missing earlier this week were found late Thursday, dumped near a road south of Beirut in an incident that shook the country and sparked fears of renewed sectarian violence. (...)

A security official quoted by The Associated Press said that Qabalan and Ghandour had been shot to death and that the bodies bore signs of beating.
The youths' disappearance triggered nationwide fears of another round of sectarian violence in a country tense from five months of political deadlock between government supporters and opposition forces. Four people were killed in Beirut on January 25 in sectarian clashes.

The fathers of Qabalan and Ghandour belong to the Progressive Socialist Party of Druze leader Walid Jumblatt, who has repeatedly urged all parties to remain calm and allow the authorities to investigate.
"Let's distance politics from this issue," he added, calling on his supporters to remain calm and not to take matters into their own hands.
Earlier in the day, 30 pupils of the Wata al-Mosseitbeh Government School, which Ghandour attended, staged a half-hour sit-in outside the school in order to call for the 12-year-old's release.

"Let us learn. Let us live. The kidnapping of Ziad Ghandour is a crime against childhood," read some of the pamphlets carried by the students.

Lebanon's most senior Shiite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah, condemned the kidnapping, describing it as a "major crime whose perpetrators should be prosecuted."

President Emile Lahoud requested in a statement that all security measures be taken to prevent "any repercussions of this deplorable incident."

Lahoud added the situation in Lebanon "cannot bear such acts that harm stability and further ... increase tension and rekindle strife."

Anonymous said...


Ces crimes affreux ont-ils encore une fois été commis de sang froid par des sionistes sans âme ?


Pamela Chrabieh Badine said...

Nous ne savons pas encore par qui ces crimes ont été commis. L'enquête est encore en cours. D'ailleurs pourrions-nous vraiment le savoir un jour? Tant de crimes commis et non résolus... Les meurtriers peuvent être Libanais, Syriens, Israéliens ou autres. Beaucoup ne veulent pas que la situation au Liban se stabilise, ce qui complique l'analyse des événements.

Anonymous said...


Que c'est triste cette maudite haine que les gens se transmettent à partir du sang des autres...

Bon courage,